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Supporting infrastructure

Source: Chinese Embassy in South Africa

[Roads] South Africa has the longest road network in Africa and enjoys highways. The road network not only covers the whole country, but also connects with neighboring countries. The total travel distance is about 754,000 km.
[Railway] South Africa's railway network and road network complement each other to form a complete land transport system. The railway links with Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia and Malawi with a mileage of 34,000 kilometers and rank No. 10 in the world, accounting for 35% of the total African railway mileage. 95% of the railway is for freight, controlled by Transnet.
[Air] South Africa air transport industry is relatively developed, the existing 10 major airports, located in Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Bloemfontein, Port Elizabeth and other major cities. South African Airways is Africa's largest airline.
[Water transport] South Africa owns Africa's largest, most fully equipped and efficient shipping network, with 96% of its exports by sea. Major ports include Richards Bay, Durban, East London, Port Elizabeth, Nqqura, Mossel Bay, Cape Town and Sardania Bay, and the National Ports Authority of Transnet, Responsible for management.
【Communication】 South African telecom development level is high, the basic realization of the telecommunications network data, data microwave and fiber optic cable is the main transmission medium. More than 8.5 million Internet users, is expected by the end of 2012 will exceed 10 million. The postal service is monopolized by the South African post office, the postal network is developed, and the scope of business basically covers the whole country.
[Electricity] South Africa is a major electricity power in Africa supplying 2/3 of all electricity in Africa and 13 coal-fired power stations, generating 88% of the total electricity. In addition, there are 1 nuclear power station, 2 pumped storage Can power station, six hydropower stations, two fuel stations. In 2008, the total generating capacity was about 238.3 billion kilowatts. More than 95% of the electricity was supplied by Eskom. However, with the continuous economic development, the issue of electricity shortage in South Africa has become increasingly prominent.
Responsible for Railways and Ports: The Transnet Group is the exclusive monopoly of South Africa's rail freight industry with the sole shareholder being the South African government and managed by the South African government's Public Enterprise Division. All of its related assets and operations management are owned and managed by its subsidiaries. Its subsidiaries include: freight railways, railway engineering companies, the National Harbor Authority and the port company.
       Transnet Group's development plan in line with the South African national infrastructure development plan. Planning mainly includes upgrading existing infrastructure such as ports and railways. The specific content by the Transnet Group to develop market demand strategy.
Infrastructure Market Needs The strategic plan was proposed by President Zuma in February 2012: The government plans to raise Rs300 billion in another seven years to build and upgrade infrastructure projects such as railways, ports and oil pipelines. Of which 205.5 billion rand is spent on rail projects, of which 151 billion are for the development of freight railways.
A major challenge for South Africa is the fact that the existing railway system has reached its useful life. Due to lack of funding, 35% of the 21,000 km of South African railways are in a state of disrepair. Only 3,928 kilometers of road sections can operate at full capacity.
       In April 2011, South Africa's Deputy Minister of Transport Kronen said in Johannesburg that the South African government has approved a railway infrastructure development plan with a total investment of Rs 97 billion.
The project will start in 2014 with a construction period of 18 to 20 years. At present, the work done by the South African Bureau of Engineering on the feasibility study of the project and the procurement, financing, operation and maintenance programs has been completed. According to reports, the project planned three important high-speed railway.
current progress:
     - In the Transnet locomotive bidding project, the United States GE won the bid, at the same time requires 37% of the localization;
     - Another enterprise, CSR also won the bid;
     - China Development Bank 45 billion rand loans;
     - Another joint venture company won the bid to build a railway line connecting Swaziland with a target of about 17 billion rand.
        South Africa owns eight major commercial ports:
 Saldanha Bay, Cape Town, Mossel Bay, Port Elizabeth, Ngqura, East London, Durban and Richards Bay. The ports are owned by the National Ports Authority, which is the Transnet affiliate.
        Port function design:
    (1) Some port design functions primarily serve bulk cargoes such as the Saldanha port for iron ore exports and oil imports;
    (2) the other is mainly for some important industrial services, such as Mossel Bay for the offshore oil industry;
    (3) There is also a focus on a freight, taking into account the variety of import and export commodities. Durban, once the largest container port in the southern hemisphere (recently replaced by Jakarta), is also South Africa's largest oil port and has the capacity to handle other dry bulk bulk commodities and mixed cargoes.
 Key Port Introduction 1- Richards Bay (Richards Bay): Founded in 1976, South Africa is the main coal export port, is also the world's second largest bulk port. Dock a total of 21 berths, the maximum depth of 19.5 meters. Loading and unloading equipment has a variety of shore crane, loading machines and tugboats, the maximum can dock 370,000 tons of ships. In 2010 the entire port annual handling capacity of 85 million tons (in 2019 plans to expand to 100 million tons of throughput and above).
The port has become the most important place to load and dry bulk commodities, dealing with an ever-increasing variety of dry bulk, new bulk commodities and mixed bulk. Bulk cargo handling focused on the following four aspects: coal exports; scattered miscellaneous; dry bulk and wet bulk. A significant portion of Richard Bay's freight business is relocated from Durban Harbor, with the relative advantage of adequate stockpile space and less severe port congestion. It also has the ability to handle small quantities of containers. Richard Bay currently operates 21 berths, including a coal handling center and a small dock for moorings and tugs at ports. The coal handling center with five berths is owned by Richard Bay Coal Terminal.
        Richards Bay Harbor - Inland Transportation
        Called the Richcor Coal Line, from the southernmost tip of the harbor to the South Dunes Rail Loading Center, the line serves the RBCT. The northern part of the port is linked by rail to Swaziland and the northern coastline, Nsezi Field. John Ross, undergoing renovation, has direct rail access to the N2. Roads to Durban and N3 to Gauteng via the N2 highway are in good condition. Another large capacity direct highway to Gauteng needs to be built in the future. Richards Bay Port - Short-Term Planning Plans for future dry bulk and multipurpose hubs are included in The Richards Bay
        Capacity Development Plan. The opportunity to upgrade its loading and unloading capacity from 14 million tons to 24 million tons per year by means of a circular railway, new port equipment, stockpiles, rail infrastructure and more rationalized port operations. The new coal export hub plans to rebuild 600 series berths at South Dunes with additional berths. Wet bulk cargo handling capacity will be enhanced by the completion of berth 208 and the addition of storage areas, providing the opportunity to add an operator.

Key Ports Introduction 2-Saldanha Port: With an annual loading capacity of 8,000 tons and an annual throughput of 50 million tons (planned to expand to 80 million tons in 2019), it is a major iron ore shipping terminal with 2 berths, Two 35-ton freighters can be parked.
The port is the deepest port in South Africa, can be anchored 21.5 meters draft of the vessel. The total length of the pier is 900 meters, including 2 iron berths connected to the 3.1 kilometers of full-length causeway. There is another 365-meter tanker berth at the end of the iron ore terminal. Iron ore export facilities include tilt units that unload ore from trains, devices that unload iron ore to the mine stack, and belt conveyor equipment. This conveyor belt can transport raw materials to a cargo ship on the quay 7km away.
Inland transport: The port is linked by the Sishen-Saldanha rail link to the iron ore field in the Northern Cape. Another railroad leads to Cape Town, reaching the Cape Corridor and the hinterland of Gauteng. The N7 motorway connects the Saldanha port to the entire national road network. Liquid fuel pipelines connect ports to storage facilities outside the port and can be exported to Cape Town's refineries

South Africa's electricity market is run exclusively by Eskom, with a total installed capacity of 42 million kw, accounting for 60% of Africa. South African power in addition to meet their own needs, but also exported to neighboring countries. South Africa is rich in coal resources, yield the highest in Africa, for the development of coal-fired power plants with natural advantages.
The average annual growth rate of South Africa's GDP is expected to reach 4%. In the next few years, the gap between supply and demand of South African electricity will gradually widen. It can be seen from the figure below that according to the existing power supply capacity, the total capacity will continue to decline due to the aging of the equipment and the demand for electricity will rapidly increase. In 2012, the electricity supply will be completely unable to meet peak demand. By 2018, the gap will reach 9500MW.

        The South African government has introduced a new power policy to encourage Independent Power Suppliers (IPPs) to enter the market, and 30% of the new installed capacity in South Africa will be built and provided by IPP. Requires IPP-operated power plant operation standardization and internationalization.
  Eskom plans to add 17,000MW of installed capacity by 2014 and doubling its installed capacity by 2025 to 80,000MW. In the new 40,000MW, about 50% of the planned nuclear power. Followed by coal and gas power stations, and eight hydropower stations with a total installed capacity of 5.1 million kilowatts.
         In the five years from 2007 and beyond, Eskom plans to invest 150 billion rand (22 billion U.S. dollars) in power facilities. Eskom plans to source 50 billion rand from its own funds, and the remaining 100 billion rand is financed externally and halves South Africa's domestic and foreign finances respectively. Given the inflationary factor, the investment is expected to double to reach R300 billion ($ 44 billion) in five years. The picture shows: Eskom power plant construction planning